Happy New Year: Crafting a Realistic Resolution

“New Year, New You!”
“This year, I’m going to be healthy!”
“My New Year’s diet starts today!”

New Year’s is the perfect time to hit the reset button — a fresh year represents a new start where you can commit to self improvement.  I love the idea of establishing a New Year’s resolution to help kick start your healthy changes, but it’s hard to overlook the tendency of resolutions to fizzle out by the end of February.

To stretch the lifespan of your resolution and create a long-lasting behavior, try making it a very specific goal.   The solution lies in a classic goal-setting acronym S.M.A.R.T. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-Bound.  By tailoring your resolution

  • Specific: Define what actions you need to do to achieve your goal
    • If your overall goal is to be healthier, ask yourself HOW you will do that. Perhaps you want to eat more vegetables, less fast-food, or fewer refined sugars.
  • Measurable: How will you measure your success?
    • Avoid just stating you’ll do something “more” or “less” (work out more, eat more fruit, drink less coffee) and instead add a defined target goal, like eating at least 1 serving of fruit a day or going to the gym 3 times a week.
    • These concrete numbers will help you keep better track of your progress by giving you a reference point.
  • Attainable: Set goals you can realistically achieve
    • This is a huge part of setting successful goals- choose something that is challenging but doable, to make sure you can see it through.
    • If you haven’t touched a vegetable in years, it would be ambitious to say you’ll eat 3 servings of veggies every day. If you try to add one serving per day, though, you may stick with it much longer.
    • Similarly, you’re more likely to stick to “cutting back” than you are to “cutting out” foods or behaviors that aren’t particularly healthful. This will lead to sustainable behavior change so you can turn your resolution into your new norm.
  • Relevant: Is this goal going to help you achieve your big picture goal?
    • Here’s the key question: Will the specific goal you’re setting help you achieve the overall desired outcome?
    • If the answer is yes, then you’ve set a goal that aligns with your overall vision of health (relevant!).
    • If the answer is no, then your focus may have shifted throughout the process, so center your attention back on what it is you really hope to achieve.
  • Time-Bound: Factor in frequency or deadlines for your goals
    • There is no right or wrong timeline for a goal– it is entirely up to your current habits and your desired outcomes.
    • You might resolve to start eating at least one vegetable per day, one vegetable serving per meal, one new vegetable each week… They’re all worthwhile goals with a timing-specific limit (per day, per meal, each week).
    • Defining this aspect of frequency will help you be consistent, keep track of your actions, and know whether or not you’re hitting your target.

If you make your goals S.M.A.R.T, you will be able to gauge your success, stay dedicated, and hopefully see your resolution through for the year to come!

Wishing you a very happy, healthy 2019!

Frozen Foods: Off Limits or Fantastic Time-savers?

When we’re in a pinch for time, frozen foods seem to be the perfect answer: a full meal in a matter of minutes! But what do those time saving meals mean for your health?

I find that the freezer aisle is a very love-it-or-hate it area of the supermarket; either you can’t shake the image of a 1950’s family eating mushy TV dinners straight from the microwave and therefore won’t touch the stuff, or you adore the convenience of a pre-made, high-flavor complete meal that requires no prep (though you’ve probably never checked the label).

I fall somewhere in the middle. The health-food wave is slowly spreading throughout most supermarkets, and the freezer aisle is no exception! The trick to shopping here is to know what you’re looking for and how to compare products.

Here’s my Top 5 Freezer-Friendly Shopping Tips:

  1. Sodium Alert
    Salt has been used as a natural preservative since ancient times, which is why so many frozen (and canned) foods are packed with sodium! The American Heart Association recommends most people consume no more than 2000 mg sodium daily (the same as 1 level teaspoon), while those with a history of heart disease should aim for 1500 mg sodium.  For any large meal like a frozen dinner, choose meals with 600 mg of salt or less. Many popular brands have over 1500 mg in one serving, so definitely start eying the sodium before picking a meal!
  2. Well-Balanced Meals
    As tempting as it may be to purchase just frozen truffle macaroni and cheese, try to choose well balanced meals that have some fresh vegetables and whole grains. Many companies are creating more well-balanced meals using organic produce, ancient grains, and lean protein to help your meal be nutritious as well as delicious.
  3. Look Beyond the Label
    Perhaps more than any other aisle, the freezer is full of items marketed towards dieters. Just take a look at how many have words like ‘lean,’ ‘light,’ and ‘healthy’ in the brand name! While those foods very well might be great choices, a title alone doesn’t guarantee that. Always look at the nutrition facts before trusting the marketing, examining the calorie content (I’ve seen meals range from 200 to over 800 calories in a serving), saturated fat content (the goal is as low as possible here), and sodium amount to make sure your meal is actually a healthy choice.
  4. Bulk Up With Veggies
    Some meals look delicious on the cover but are far too small when you actually pop them out of the box (if you ever see a meal for under 300 calories, that’s a red flag that the portion will be petite). Instead of doubling up, bulk up your meal with frozen fresh vegetables! Frozen produce is often flash frozen right after harvest so the nutrients are preserved, and any vegetable on its own (without any sauce or butter added) is still very low calorie, high in fiber, low in sodium, and high in nutrients. You can add a lot of bulk to tiny but delicious meals this way.
  5. Be Adventurous!
    Take advantage of the wild array of recipes available at your fingertips! Food companies have recognized that consumers like to try foreign cuisines and complex meals that we wouldn’t cook for ourselves, so take a walk on the wild side and try some new flavors. I’ve seen Indian, Japanese, Chinese, and Mexican dishes as well as meals featuring ancient grains, unique herbs and seasonings like lemongrass, and flavorful curries.

 

Next time you think about ordering take out or driving through the fast food window, consider the freezer aisle for some potentially healthier alternatives. Do you have any brands or lines that are your go-to or that you’re looking forward to trying? Comment below!

 

Bonus: for some insight into frozen breakfasts, take a look at my Low-carb Breakfast post featuring a breakdown of some popular items!

Why Your Diet Doesn’t Work: The Imprecise Science of Caloric Balance

“Want to lose one pound of fat? Just cut 500 calories from your diet each day and you’ll shed one pound per week!” We’ve all heard that sensationalized claim before, and if it sounds a bit too good to be true, that’s because it is. This math is based on the premise that it takes exactly 3500 calories to burn one pound of fact, but that information itself is inherently flawed.

Weight maintenance is essentially a function of our basal metabolic rate, or BMR: the amount of calories your body burns daily just to survive. Just like it takes more energy to power larger machinery, it takes more calories to feed all of the cells in larger or heavier people– so they naturally have higher BMRs. If you were to lie in bed for 24 hours without any activity or intake, after fasting for at least 10 hours, your BMR is the number of calories your body would burn.

We can estimate our BMR with equations like the Harris-Benedict and Mifflin St Jeor equations, which take your height, weight, age, and gender into account. If you’ve ever tried to calculate your calorie needs online or via app, they probably use these equations.

The only way to actually measure your BMR, though, is through ‘calorimetry‘ (which literally means ‘calorie measurement’); direct calorimetry requires you to stand in a specialized chamber that measures how much heat your body is producing (impractical for most people), and indirect calorimetry can use respiratory tests to measure how much oxygen you inhale and carbon dioxide you exhale over a set period of time (somewhat more practical and actually available at some fitness and medical centers).

Of course we don’t just lie in bed all day. When we factor in our daily activities, we can find our Total Energy Expenditure (TEE), which means how many calories you burn on a typical day doing your usual activities. This is about 20% higher than your BMR if you are mostly sedentary to up to 90% higher if you are a professional athlete. Most people who are moderately active (1-3 days of intentional physical activity or exercise) burn about 38% more calories than their BMR.

This is where the error happens: It is very difficult to know how many calories you truly burn in a day. According to predictive equations, as a 5’4″, 27-year-old, mildly active, average weight female, my estimated BMR ranges from 1360 calories (Mifflin Jeor) to 1430 calories (Harris-Benedict), and my TEE should be about 1630 – 1720 calories daily.   I actually had indirect calorimetry done at a local gym last year, however, and my results showed that a better estimate for my BMR is 1123 calories and my TEE is close to 1350 calories.

That’s about 20% fewer calories fewer than traditional estimates- meaning that my body needs way fewer calories than the textbooks tell me.

Moving onto the second major issue: the 3500-calorie rule just doesn’t seem to be true.

This number came from a 1950s study by Max Wishnofky called “Calorie Equivalents of Gained or Lost Weight,” which posits that one pound of fat would require about 3500  calories to burn based on the scientific principles of fat. (If you’re interested in the gritty details: 1 pound (454 grams) of fat cells contains about 87% actual fat, and since it takes about 9 calories to burn one gram of fat, than a whole whole pound (454 grams) should burn up using about 3700 calories).  If you took a literal pound of fat and threw it into an incinerator to measure how much energy was required to literally burn it, that might be accurate. However, it doesn’t take our physiology into effect, and for better or for worse, our bodies are extremely adaptive at trying to preserve our energy stores.

Wishnofsky also examined a 1930s study by Strange, McCluggage, and Evans (“Further studies in the dietary correction of obesity”) which essentially starved for weight loss and found that they lost 0.6 pounds per day with a 2100 calorie deficit. How would one have such a severe deficit, you ask? They were put on a 360 calorie diet.

  • The diet: 360 calories made up of lean steak, fish, egg whites, whole milk, orange juice, yeast, minimal vegetables, and salt contributing ~58 grams of protein, 14 grams of carbohydrates, and 8 grams of fat each day. By today’s medical standards this would be a study of intentionally invoking severe malnutrition.
  • The participants: only 13 patients participated, and they were all in a hospital setting. Their weight ranged from 180 pounds to 427 pounds at the start of the study.
  • The outcomes: everyone obviously lost weight – the average was 35 pounds over 59 days. This was VERY inconsistent, though: actual weight loss ranged from 5 pounds over 8 days to 104 pounds over 176 days. 

This very small data pool based on a severe starvation diet showed that people lost about 0.6 pounds with a 2100 calorie deficit each day – making the weight loss ratio 1 pound to every 3500 calories. The 3500 calorie rule is based on these 13 people, severe starved for anywhere from a week to 25 weeks. 

I think this just exposes a truth we all know deep down inside: it’s just not that simple. Reviews of studies indicate that we lose weight more slowly than the rule would predict because our body burns fewer and fewer calories as we lose pounds. If you’ve ever watched a season of The Biggest Loser, you’ve seen this reality in action. Contestants used to lose over 20 pounds per week in the beginning when they were larger and had more excess weight to lose, but by the final weeks, they were following severe diets and working out 10 hours per day only to lose 2 – 3 pounds per week. Over time, their bodies required fewer calorie per day to run, so that calorie deficit rule shifted for them.

The good news is that researchers are now starting to battle this well-known rule to promote more realistic weight loss attempts. Dr. Diana Thomas and colleagues are leading this crusade with a math-driven approach, modeling actual weight loss journeys to create calorie / weight loss curves showing significantly less weight loss than the 3500 calorie rule predicts. Though many weight loss apps still use standard formulas to calculate how many calories you need per day for weight loss, a much more sustainable method would be to try to improve the overall quality of your diet, monitor what you currently eat and try to implement a slight deficit, increase your physical activity, and adjust things your plan as you go.

There is one slight upside to the 3500 rule, which is that it is memorable enough to communicate that caloric deficit is needed to burns weight. The downside is that it dramatically overestimates the rate of weight loss and can inspire dangerous levels of calorie cutting. I would never recommend eating less than 1200 calories; crash diets slow down your metabolism as your body adapts quickly to its new low-energy state, and nearly everyone rebounds back to a poor higher-calorie diet later on. Emphasizing overall nutrition quality, seeking a registered dietitian for ongoing nutrition counseling and support, and focusing on nutrition as a health goal rather than a means to an end can help you actually achieve your goals and maintain them long-term.

 

The overall takeaway:

  1. It is difficult to calculate your accurate BMR.
  2. It is even harder to then calculate your TEE
  3. Even if you can figure out how many calories you need daily, it is difficult to know how steep of a calorie deficit you would need to burn 1 pound of fat as the 3500 calorie rule is unreliable and based on absolutely extremist, insufficient research.
  4. Focus on improving diet quality, achieving a mild but sustainable caloric deficit, and seek assistance from a nutrition professional if you feel lost!

 

 

Resources:

Wishnofsky M.  Caloric equivalents of gained or lost weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1958 Sep-Oct; 6(5):542-6.

Strang JM, McCluggage HB, Evans FA. Further studies in the dietary correction of obesity. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1930;179(5):687–693.

Thomas DM, Gonzalez MC, Pereira AZ, Redman LM, Heymsfield SB. Time to Correctly Predict the Amount of Weight Loss with Dieting.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2014;114(6):857-861.

Top 5 Ways to Get Back on Track after Thanksgiving

We’ve officially kicked off the holiday season with Thanksgiving – and if you’re like most Americans, you ate several times the calories you normally would!  I’m a big believer in enjoying celebrations and eating guilt-free on those days, though even those who are normally mindful of what they eat can easily eat seconds and thirds of their favorite family recipes (followed by tiny portions of about 6 different desserts).

The key to surviving the holiday season from this point on while still adhering to your health goals is to take each day at a time- follow these tips to make it to New Year’s without backsliding into old habits.

  1. Leave the holiday splurges for the holidays.
    If you follow one tip all season, make it this one! Food traditions are at the heart of many holiday celebrations, so enjoy them on the actual day-of, but don’t carry those bad eating habits with you for the rest of the season!
    Whatever your major holidays are — Christmas Eve, Christmas day, Hanukkah, New Year’s Eve, a certain holiday party you’ve been waiting for — enjoy the food and drink on that day but go back to your normal eating routine once the event is over. If you carry out that celebration mentality every day until New Year’s and eat twice the calories you normally do, you can easily pack on the pounds or wind up with out of control blood sugars. This goes for leftovers as well; definitely enjoy those Thanksgiving leftovers, but serve yourself smaller portions so you don’t overeat like you may have while feasting with family.
  2. Listen to your Hunger Cues.
    If you’ve ever eaten to the point of becoming uncomfohunger scalertably full (a feeling very well associated with holidays), you probably ignored your hunger cues. Our bodies are great at telling us when we need to eat and when we can stop, but our love of flavor usually leads us to keep eating far beyond that point. Using a mental Hunger Scale can help you identify when you need to eat or wait so you can eat more intuitively. Throughout the season, ask yourself if you are eating because you are hungry (scale points 3 & 4) to the point of satiety (points 5 & 6) or beyond that (points 7 & above) so that you can enjoy your holiday treats without feeling stuffed.
  3. Don’t drink your calories.
        Alcohol is a major part of many holiday festivities, but it’s a two-fold trap when you are watching your health! First, alcohol is packed with calories – and the heavier the drink, the more calories it packs.  While a light beer or a 4 ounce glass of champagne has around 100 calories, a heavy winter lager or a martini can easily have over 200. Add creamy drinks like eggnog or dessert martinis and those drinks pack more than 300 calories each. The second trap here is that alcohol dulls your inhibitions and often leads to eating far more than you ever would while sober! This is especially true for anyone who restricts their eating on a daily basis, so if you tend to be a crash-dieter, you may find yourself eating twice what you normally would once alcohol silences that voice in your head. My tip is to cap yourself at once drink so you can enjoy yourself while still being able to hear your hunger cues rather than overindulging unintentionally.
  4. Plan ahead.
         This may be the least fun tip, but it’s the most practical. If you are going to a holiday party where you know your friend’s famous seven-layer dip or decadent dessert will be served, make a mental plan of how you will be allotting your calories. This can help you enjoy your favorite items without feeling guilt that you splurged all night long. A good rule of thumb is to try to divide your dinner into courses like you would at a restaurant: an appetizer, dinner, and dessert. Choose your favorite small app, a main course with protein and some vegetables if available, and one sweet plate (or drink) for dessert rather than grazing mindlessly all night.
  5. Stay mindful between meals.
    There are only a few actual holidays this season but many normal days with special treats lying around. If you love to buy seasonal snacks or work in an office with a constant supply of desserts, make a mental note of how often you are eating otherwise celebratory foods throughout the day. If you are having multiple sweets throughout the morning and afternoon, you are likely having way more calories and carbohydrates than you would eat any other time of year, and this can do a number on your blood sugars and waist line. Find a happy medium that works for you, like only eating workplace treats two times a week instead of every day or saving your treats at home for weekends.

If you find yourself struggling and need extra guidance on how to prioritize your health goals while still enjoying the holidays, nutrition counseling with a registered dietitian nutritionist can make a huge difference. I have a great holiday deal through the end of the year and an even better Black Friday deal through 11/26, so this is the time to book a session!

What exactly is an RDN, and why should I trust one?

Everybody eats. All day long, no matter what you do from sun up to sun down, at some point your body needs food and you will eat. You’ll repeat that every day for the rest of your life, and so you will naturally form opinions about your food and perhaps which ones are ‘good’ or ‘bad.’ Your mother and your grandmother will tell you what to do to stay healthy; the fittest guy at the gym will swear he knows how to shred fat; catchy headlines and Google searches and talk show hosts will all offer ‘the key to weight loss!’ The enemy is fat! No, gluten! No, sugar!

I’ll give you a hint: if there was one key to overall health or weight loss, one simple meal plan to solve it all, whomever discovered it would be a trillionaire and you wouldn’t be reading this article. However, nutrition is much more complex than that. 

If you feel like there is an overwhelming amount of conflicting information out there, you’re right! That’s because there isn’t really one clearcut ‘healthy diet’ for everyone. Certain people DO need to cut out gluten, or watch how much potassium they eat, or strictly cut their sodium, or follow a medically-prescribed ketogenic diet to prevent seizures. However, deep Google dives will yield a lot of discordant information if you don’t know exactly what kind of nutrition information is a) pertinent to you, b) scientifically sound, and c) safe.

That’s why we need Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDN). Most people don’t know that an RDN is different than a ‘nutritionist’ or a ‘health coach.’ I myself didn’t know the difference until I pursued this path professionally, but those three little letters — RDN — hold a lot of meaning about the quality of nutrition education and counseling my colleagues and I provide. To become an RDN, you must:

  1. Complete an undergraduate degree including about 90 semester hours (more than a standard major) of in-depth science and nutrition-focused curriculum
  2. Complete over 1200 hours of supervised professional practice internship working under dietitians in clinical settings (hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, dialysis centers), community locations (like WIC, Head Start, or Meals and Wheels programming for food security), and food service roles (implementing food safety standards and learning the managerial functions of food service directors)
  3. Pass a credentialing exam that covers principles of nutrition and food science, human anatomy and physiology, educational theory and application, counseling techniques, research techniques and interpretation, medical nutrition therapy for individuals in all stages of life and with varying diseases, employee and financial management skills, and menu creation and implementation just to name a few topics.
  4. Soon all RDNs will be required to hold Master’s degrees, though many dietitians (including myself) already hold a Master’s in areas like clinical nutrition, nutrition and food science, business, health care administration, or public health.

Other nutrition professions like ‘health coach’ or ‘nutritionist’ do not require the same degree of formal training (some have quick online courses that cover overall healthy eating without any explanation as to the scientific foundation of these principles or the medical implications). You may find some non-dietitian individuals who do have formal health education and experience, but you can’t be certain of the wealth of training your practitioner has completed unless he or she is a dietitian.

The New Jersey Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has launched a campaign to support Registered Dietitian Nutritionists as the nutrition expert– and I highly suggest you check out the launch video here!

Cauliflower Fried Rice

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Cauliflower is one of the few foods that I believe earns the term ‘super’: it’s high in vitamin C, incredibly low in calories and carbohydrates, and is part of the cancer-fighting veggie group Cassica (along with broccoli, cabbage, and brussel sprouts — better known by the term ‘cruciferous’)

img_20180820_203508_6281132994166.jpg There’s no denying that plain riced cauliflower is visibly quite plain, and cauliflower on its own tends to taste bland — but this veg is a perfect blank canvas for bulking up recipes in a low cal, low carb way!

Although I am a long-time cauliflower lover, this was my first time experimenting with cauliflower rice, and since pork fried rice was a staple take-out food when I was growing up, I wanted to use those same savory flavors — but in a much healthier way.

 

The recipe I used is a loose one, meaning you can increase / decrease / omit / or adjust anything based on your own preferences!

 

Ingredients (Makes 2 large servings of ~1.5 cups)

  • 1 – 2 tsp sesame oil
  • 1 – 2 tsp rice vinegar (unsweetened)
  • 1 tsp Low Sodium soy sauce (low sodium is important- it cuts about 40% of the sodium!)
  • 1 small onion, minced
  • 2 cups of riced cauliflower
  • 2 Tbsp chicken broth, vegetable broth, or water
  • 1/3 cup green peas (I used frozen)
  • 1/2 cup sliced mushrooms, sauteed
  • 1 cup cooked brown rice (I used Minute Rice Brown Rice with Quinoa mix)
  • Optional: 1 egg
  1. Saute the onions in ~1 tsp sesame oil; sweat until translucent. Add in rice vinegar.
  2. Add your cauliflower rice. Season with low sodium soy sauce. Allow to cook together in pan until cauliflower becomes fork-tender but before it gets mushy. You may find it helpful to steam the cauliflower a bit by adding ~2 Tbsp of liquid (chicken broth, vegetable broth, or water will all work) and covering with a lid.
  3. Add peas, sauteed mushrooms, and brown rice to saute pan.  That’s all there is to it!
  4. Optional: Scramble egg and serve atop rice bowl.

If you want to get fancy, here are some other fun add-ins:

  • Chopped scallions
  • Grated ginger
  • Water chestnuts
  • Shredded carrotts
  • Broccoli florettes
  • Snap Peas
  • Edamame
  • Tofu
  • Chicken
  • Sesame seeds or Black sesame seeds

 

Rise and Shine!

A new study found in Frontiers in Endocrinology links early morning behavior with lower BMI and lower risk of Type II DM.

Participants with pre-diabetes were given a score on something called the Composite Scale of Morningness, which was a number representing how early the like to wake up, go to sleep, and go about their day (physical and mental activity). ‘Morningness,’ or the tendency to do everything earlier than most, was linked to lower BMI, as was longer sleep duration. The findings were strongest for those 60 and older.

Would you shift your schedule for health benefits?

To read the original article, visit the text online here.

Let them eat carbs! … in the right amounts.

A new study published in The Lancet addresses one of the most pressing questions in the history of human nutrition: Are carbs okay to eat, and if so, how much can I have?!

Carbohydrates get a bad name in popular nutrition media, partly because so many of our favorite junk foods are high in processed grains and refined sugars (ice cream, cookies, white bread, donuts, chocolate, chips…) along with the inherent nature of carbohydrates to be relatively fast-fuel for our bodies — though they’re often turned to fat because we simply don’t burn them as fast as we eat them.  On the other hand, whole grains, fresh fruit, corn, peas, milk, and yogurt are all wonderful foods that are also packed with carbs. This brings us back to our burning question: can I eat carbs or not?

The study published this month explored longevity for people following low-carb or high-carb diets in comparison to moderate-carb diets where about 50-55% of calories come from carbohydrate. For a frame of reference, the currently recommended carbohydrate intake range is 45-65%, so the moderate levels falls nicely in line with this. Those who did follow the moderate-carb diets had the lowest risk of mortality compared to those who ate <40% or >70% of their calories from carbs.

This study hit all of the golden points for quality research: there was a large pool of participants (over 15,000 adults) who were followed for a long period of time (median of 25 years). Most importantly, the researchers dove a bit deeper into why a low-carb diet may be just as dangerous as a high-carb one.  When people cut out carbohydrates, something else must take its place so protein and/or fat intake increases to make up the difference. These can either come from animal sources (meat, dairy) or plant sources (nuts, seeds, whole grains). The researchers explored these two options and found that those who eat more animal-sourced protein and fats have higher mortality risks than those who choose plant-based proteins and fats instead, indicating that a plant-based diet may have protective factors.

The original article has been published as Open Access, meaning that anyone can read it – so check it out here!

Food Label Health Claims Decoded

The FDA recently approved a qualified health claim linking macadamia nuts to heart health, allowing food packaging to state:

“Supportive but not conclusive research shows that eating 1.5 ounces per day of macadamia nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and not resulting in increased intake of saturated fat or calories may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. See nutrition information for fat [and calorie] content.”

My first reaction was, to be honest, excitement; I love macadamia nuts and am happy to hear that they may help protect my heart.

My second instinct, however, was to pause and wonder how other consumers may react to this. While I support nuts as a source of healthy fats and a major part of my diet, I do know that there is a lot of confusion surrounding food labels and the health claims asserted on packaging. Does this mean we should eat macadamia nuts every day? Will this treat heart disease? How much evidence is there behind this?

Luckily, labels are highly regulated, and a claim like this can be easily decoded with a bit of background.

The FDA allows the food industry to use health claims — statements which relate a certain ingredient to a health condition– when there is adequate scientific evidence supporting the relationship.  Different claims may highlight levels of nutrients (‘good source of vitamin A’) with approval, or they can tie a relationship between a nutrient and the functioning of the body (like ‘calcium builds strong bones’), though the FDA does not evaluate these claims and the label must reflect that. Companies cannot say that a nutrient is meant to diagnose, treat, or a cure a disease.

The gold-standard for claims are the Authorized ones, where there is such an abundance of evidence that the FDA supports the usage of these statements with confidence. There are only a handful of these claims (the list is found here), but some of the major ones include: Calcium/vitamin D and osteoporosis, saturated fat/cholesterol and heart disease, fruits/vegetables and cancer, and sodium and hypertension.

The list of ‘qualified’ claims is far longer– these are the statements that are supported by some body of research but not quite enough to be taken as undeniable fact. The FDA allows companies to use the statements but also requires a qualifying statement saying that, while there is evidence, it is not not enough to meet the rigorous standards of the FDA’s authorized claims.

For more on Qualified Health Claims, visit the FDA’s dedicated site: https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm2006877.htm

 

My Egg Obsession

Scrambled, poached, over easy, hard boiled, tossed into salads, floating in ramen… eggs can be added to any meal!

The myth that eggs cause high cholesterol has been debunked (your body makes more cholesterol from saturated fats, but the 200mg cholesterol in an egg won’t cause a corresponding spike in blood lipids), and the benefits of eggs are clear:

  • Protein! Eggs are one of the few non-meat items that provide all of the amino acids you need in your diet, and though the egg whites are known for this protein-punch, egg yolks also provide the nutrient.
  • Choline- this important nutrient is needed for brain health and neural development.
  • Lutein- a type of carotenoid that protects eye health
My egg splurge: eggs on a BLT with avocado, atop seven grain toast